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蒋振飞的博客

网络爬虫05:BesutifulSoup库详解

发布时间: 2018年08月01日 发布人: 蒋振飞 热度: 376 ℃ 评论数: 0

一、BeautifulSoup

1.什么是BeautifulSoup

    灵活又方便的网页解析库,处理高效,支持多种解析器。利用它不用编写正则表达式即可方便地实现网页信息的提取。    

2.安装BeautifulSoup

pip3 install lxml
pip3 install BeautifulSoup4

3.解析库

解析器使用方法优势劣势
Python标准库BeautifulSoup(markup, "html.parser")Python的内置标准库、执行速度适中 、文档容错能力强Python 2.7.3 or 3.2.2)前的版本中文容错能力差
lxml HTML 解析器BeautifulSoup(markup, "lxml")速度快、文档容错能力强需要安装C语言库
lxml XML 解析器BeautifulSoup(markup, "xml")速度快、唯一支持XML的解析器需要安装C语言库
html5libBeautifulSoup(markup, "html5lib")最好的容错性、以浏览器的方式解析文档、生成HTML5格式的文档速度慢、不依赖外部扩展

二、基本使用

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.prettify())
print(soup.title.string)

三、标签选择器

1.选择元素

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.title)
print(type(soup.title))
print(soup.head)
print(soup.p)

2.获取名称

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.title.name)

3.获取属性

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.attrs['name'])
print(soup.p['name'])

4.获取内容

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p clss="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.string)

5.嵌套选择

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.head.title.string)

6.子节点和子孙节点

html = """
<html>
    <head>
        <title>The Dormouse's story</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p class="story">
            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
            <a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
                <span>Elsie</span>
            </a>
            <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> 
            and
            <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
            and they lived at the bottom of a well.
        </p>
        <p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.contents)
html = """
<html>
    <head>
        <title>The Dormouse's story</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p class="story">
            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
            <a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
                <span>Elsie</span>
            </a>
            <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> 
            and
            <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
            and they lived at the bottom of a well.
        </p>
        <p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.children)
for i, child in enumerate(soup.p.children):
    print(i, child)
html = """
<html>
    <head>
        <title>The Dormouse's story</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p class="story">
            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
            <a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
                <span>Elsie</span>
            </a>
            <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> 
            and
            <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
            and they lived at the bottom of a well.
        </p>
        <p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.descendants)
for i, child in enumerate(soup.p.descendants):
    print(i, child)

7.父节点和祖先节点

html = """
<html>
    <head>
        <title>The Dormouse's story</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p class="story">
            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
            <a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
                <span>Elsie</span>
            </a>
            <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> 
            and
            <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
            and they lived at the bottom of a well.
        </p>
        <p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.a.parent)
html = """
<html>
    <head>
        <title>The Dormouse's story</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p class="story">
            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
            <a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
                <span>Elsie</span>
            </a>
            <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> 
            and
            <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
            and they lived at the bottom of a well.
        </p>
        <p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(list(enumerate(soup.a.parents)))

8.兄弟节点

html = """
<html>
    <head>
        <title>The Dormouse's story</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p class="story">
            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
            <a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
                <span>Elsie</span>
            </a>
            <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> 
            and
            <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
            and they lived at the bottom of a well.
        </p>
        <p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(list(enumerate(soup.a.next_siblings)))
print(list(enumerate(soup.a.previous_siblings)))

四、标准选择器

1.find返回单个元素,find_all返回所有元素

find( name , attrs , recursive , text , **kwargs )
html='''
<div class="panel">
    <div class="panel-heading">
        <h4>Hello</h4>
    </div>
    <div class="panel-body">
        <ul class="list" id="list-1">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
            <li class="element">Jay</li>
        </ul>
        <ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
        </ul>
    </div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.find('ul'))
print(type(soup.find('ul')))
print(soup.find('page'))
find_all( name , attrs , recursive , text , **kwargs )

2.可根据标签名、属性、内容查找文档

    1) name

html='''
<div class="panel">
    <div class="panel-heading">
        <h4>Hello</h4>
    </div>
    <div class="panel-body">
        <ul class="list" id="list-1">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
            <li class="element">Jay</li>
        </ul>
        <ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
        </ul>
    </div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.find_all('ul'))
print(type(soup.find_all('ul')[0]))
html='''
<div class="panel">
    <div class="panel-heading">
        <h4>Hello</h4>
    </div>
    <div class="panel-body">
        <ul class="list" id="list-1">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
            <li class="element">Jay</li>
        </ul>
        <ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
        </ul>
    </div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
for ul in soup.find_all('ul'):
    print(ul.find_all('li'))

   2) attrs

html='''
<div class="panel">
    <div class="panel-heading">
        <h4>Hello</h4>
    </div>
    <div class="panel-body">
        <ul class="list" id="list-1" name="elements">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
            <li class="element">Jay</li>
        </ul>
        <ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
        </ul>
    </div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.find_all(attrs={'id': 'list-1'}))
print(soup.find_all(attrs={'name': 'elements'}))
html='''
<div class="panel">
    <div class="panel-heading">
        <h4>Hello</h4>
    </div>
    <div class="panel-body">
        <ul class="list" id="list-1">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
            <li class="element">Jay</li>
        </ul>
        <ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
        </ul>
    </div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.find_all(id='list-1'))
print(soup.find_all(class_='element'))

    3) text

html='''
<div class="panel">
    <div class="panel-heading">
        <h4>Hello</h4>
    </div>
    <div class="panel-body">
        <ul class="list" id="list-1">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
            <li class="element">Jay</li>
        </ul>
        <ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
        </ul>
    </div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.find_all(text='Foo'))

3.find_parents() find_parent()

    find_parents()返回所有祖先节点,find_parent()返回父节点。

4.find_next_siblings() find_next_sibling()

    find_next_siblings()返回后面所有兄弟节点,find_next_sibling()返回后面第一个兄弟节点。

5.find_previous_siblings() find_previous_sibling()

    find_previous_siblings()返回前面所有兄弟节点,find_previous_sibling()返回前面第一个兄弟节点。

6.find_all_next() find_next()

    find_all_next()返回节点后所有符合条件的节点, find_next()返回节点后第一个符合条件的节点。

7.find_all_previous() 和 find_previous()

    find_all_previous()返回节点前所有符合条件的节点, find_previous()返回节点前第一个符合条件的节点。

五、CSS选择器

1.通过select()直接传入CSS选择器即可完成选择

html='''
<div class="panel">
    <div class="panel-heading">
        <h4>Hello</h4>
    </div>
    <div class="panel-body">
        <ul class="list" id="list-1">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
            <li class="element">Jay</li>
        </ul>
        <ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
        </ul>
    </div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.select('.panel .panel-heading'))
print(soup.select('ul li'))
print(soup.select('#list-2 .element'))
print(type(soup.select('ul')[0]))
html='''
<div class="panel">
    <div class="panel-heading">
        <h4>Hello</h4>
    </div>
    <div class="panel-body">
        <ul class="list" id="list-1">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
            <li class="element">Jay</li>
        </ul>
        <ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
        </ul>
    </div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
for ul in soup.select('ul'):
    print(ul.select('li'))

2.获取属性

html='''
<div class="panel">
    <div class="panel-heading">
        <h4>Hello</h4>
    </div>
    <div class="panel-body">
        <ul class="list" id="list-1">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
            <li class="element">Jay</li>
        </ul>
        <ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
        </ul>
    </div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
for ul in soup.select('ul'):
    print(ul['id'])
    print(ul.attrs['id'])

3.获取内容

html='''
<div class="panel">
    <div class="panel-heading">
        <h4>Hello</h4>
    </div>
    <div class="panel-body">
        <ul class="list" id="list-1">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
            <li class="element">Jay</li>
        </ul>
        <ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
            <li class="element">Foo</li>
            <li class="element">Bar</li>
        </ul>
    </div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
for li in soup.select('li'):
    print(li.get_text())

六、总结思考

1.推荐使用lxml解析库,必要时使用html.parser。

2.标签选择筛选功能弱但是速度快。

3.建议使用find()、find_all() 查询匹配单个结果或者多个结果。

4.如果对CSS选择器熟悉建议使用select()。

5.记住常用的获取属性和文本值的方法。

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